Wednesday, 25 January 2012


Routing command And Basic Router Command

  • Wednesday, 25 January 2012
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  • First of all you should remember the keyboard shortcuts of a router.
    Keyboard Shortcuts
    CTRL-N - show next command
    CTRL-P - show previous command
    SHIFT-CTRL-6 – Break
    Configuring the Router
    You will be able to learn the basic commands for configuring a router.
    sh running-config - details the running configuration file (RAM)
    sh startup-config - displays the configuration stored in NVRAM
    setup - Will start the the automatic setup; the same as when you first boot the router
    config t - use to execute configuration commands from the terminal
    config mem - executes configuration commands stored in NVRAM; copies startup-config to running-config

    config net - used to retrieve configuration info from a TFTP server
    copy running-config startup-config - copies saved config in running config (RAM) to NVRAM or "write memory" for IOS under ver.11
    copy startup-config running-config - copies from non-volatile (NVRAM) to current running config (RAM)
    boot system flash - tells router which IOS file in flash to boot from
    boot system tftp - tells router which IOS file on the tftp server to boot from
    boot system rom - tell router to boot from ROM at next boot
    copy flash tftp - Copies flash to tftp server
    copy tftp flash - Restores flash from tftp server
    copy run tftp - Copies the current running-config to tftp server
    copy tftp run - Restores the running-config from tftp server
    General Commands
    Here is a list of the general commands. These are the basic level commands and most commonly used
    no shutdown - (enables the interface)
    reload - restarts the router
    sh ver - Cisco IOS version, uptime of router, how the router started, where system was loaded from, the interfaces the POST found, and the configuration register
    sh clock - shows date and time on router
    sh history - shows the history of your commands
    sh debug - shows all debugging that is currently enabled
    no debug all - turns off all debugging
    sh users - shows users connected to router
    sh protocols - shows which protocols are configured
    banner motd # Your customized message here # - Set/change banner
    hostname - use to configure the hostname of the router
    clear counters - clear interface counters
    Privileged Mode commands of a router
    Learn how to work in the privileged mode of a router.
    enable - get to privileged mode
    disable - get to user mode
    enable password > - sets privileged mode password
    enable secret - sets encrypted privileged mode password
    Setting Passwords on router

    Here you will be able to learn how to set the password on a router.
    enable secret - set encrypted password for privileged access
    enable password - set password for privileged access (used when there is no enable secret and when using older software)
    Setting the password for console access:
    (config)#line console 0
    Set password for virtual terminal (telnet) access (password must be set to access router through telnet):
    (config)#line vty 0 4
    Set password for auxiliary (modem) access:
    (config)#line aux 0
    Router Processes & Statistics
    By these command you can see the statistics and different processes of the router.
    sh processes - shows active processes running on router
    sh process cpu - shows cpu statistics
    sh mem - shows memory statistics
    sh flash - describes the flash memory and displays the size of files and the amount of free flash memory
    sh buffers - displays statistics for router buffer pools; shows the size of the Small, Middle, Big, Very Big, Large and Huge Buffers
    sh stacks - shows reason for last reboot, monitors the stack use of processes and interrupts routines
    IP Commands
    Here is a list of the IP Commands
    Configure IP on an interface:
    int serial 0
    ip address
    int eth 0
    ip address 2008.1.1.4
    Other IP Commands:
    sh ip route - view ip routing table
    ip route [administrative_distance] - configure a static IP route
    ip route - sets default gateway
    ip classless - use with static routing to allow packets destined for unrecognized subnets to use the best possible route
    sh arp - view arp cache; shows MAC address of connected routers
    ip address secondary - configure a 2nd ip address on an interface
    sh ip protocol
    CDP Commands (Cisco Discovery Protocol uses layer 2 multicast over a SNAP-capable link to send data):
    sh cdp neighbor - shows directly connected neighbors
    sh cdp int - shows which interfaces are running CDP
    sh cdp int eth 0/0 - show CDP info for specific interface
    sh cdp entry - shows CDP neighbor detail
    cdp timer 120
    - change how often CDP info is sent (default cdp timer is 60)
    cp holdtime 240 - how long to wait before removing a CDP neighbor (default CDP holdtime is 180)
    sh cdp run - shows if CDP turned on
    no cdp run - turns off CDP for entire router (global config)
    no cdp enable - turns off CDP on specific interface
    IPX Commands
    Enable IPX on router:
    ipx routing
    Configure IPX + IPX-RIP on an int:
    int ser 0
    ipx network 4A
    Other Commands:
    sh ipx route - shows IPX routing table
    sh ipx int e0 - shows ipx address on int
    sh ipx servers - shows SAP table
    sh ipx traffic - view traffic statistics
    debug ipx routing activity - debugs IPS RIP packets
    debug ipx sap - debugs SAP packets
    Routing Protocols
    RIP, IGPR and OSPF are the routing protocols and here is a list of the commands for the working on the routing protocols.
    Configure RIP:
    router rip
    Other RIP Commands:
    debug ip rip - view RIP debugging info
    Configure IGRP:
    router IGRP 200
    Other IGRP Commands:
    debug ip igrp events - view IGRP debugging info
    debug ip igrp transactions - view IGRP debugging info
    Access Lists
    Here is a list of the Access list command of a router.
    sh ip int ser 0 - use to view which IP access lists are applies to which int
    sh ipx int ser 0 - use to view which IPX access lists are applies to which int
    sh appletalk int ser 0 - use to view which AppleTalk access lists are applies to which int
    View access lists:
    sh access-lists
    sh ip access-lists
    sh ipx access-lists
    sh appletalk access-lists
    Apply standard IP access list to int eth 0:
    access-list 1 deny
    access-list 1 permit any
    int eth 0
    ip access-group 1 in
    Apply Extended IP access list to int eth 0:
    access-list 100 deny tcp host host eq 23
    access-list 100 deny tcp any eq 80
    int eth 0
    ip access-group 100 out
    Apply Standard IPX access list to int eth 0:
    access-list 800 deny 7a 8000
    access-list 800 permit -1
    int eth 0
    ipx access-group 800 out
    Apply Standard IPX access list to int eth 0:
    access-list 900 deny sap any 3378 -1
    access-list 900 permit sap any all -1
    int eth 0
    ipx access-group 900 out
    WAN Configurations Commands
    Networking over WAN is the main functionality of a router. The most common use of a router is for the WAN connectivity. Here is a list of the commands for the different methods of the WAN connectivity.
    PPP Configuration
    Point to point protocol is a method for the WAN connectivity and you will find here some commands of PPP.
    encapsulation pppppp authentication
    ppp chap hostname
    ppp pap sent-username user name here>
    sh int ser 0 - use to view encapsulation on the interface
    Frame-Relay Configuration

    (config-if)#clock rate 6400 - set clock on DCE (bits per second)

    (config-if)#bandwidth 64 - set bandwidth (kilobits)
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